General Questions

I have heard that TestCafe does not use Selenium. How does it operate?

Unlike most testing solutions, TestCafe is not built on Selenium. This allows us to implement features you cannot find in Selenium-based tools (for example, testing on mobile devices, user roles, automatic waiting, etc.).

TestCafe uses a URL-rewriting proxy which allows it to work without the WebDriver. This proxy injects the driver script that emulates user actions into the tested page.

You can read about this in our forum. Feel free to ask for more details.

What is the difference between a paid and an open-source TestCafe version?

TestCafe first appeared as a paid, standalone tool. It had several features besides the test runner: the Control Panel, a visual interface for creating, modifying and running your tests, and the Visual Test Recorder for recording tests by pointing and clicking through the test scenario in the browser.

In 2015 we decided to release the TestCafe core as an open-source project. The last major paid version release (v15.1) was in summer 2015. After that, it switched to a maintenance-only mode. You can find the latest paid version at https://testcafe.devexpress.com.

We released the open-source TestCafe in late 2016. It has the same name but contains lots of new functionality and improvements:

  • a new API and offers a new approach to writing tests;
  • no UI to manage and run tests. You can run tests from the CLI or node.js module;
  • it is more convenient to integrate into node.js development workflow;
  • es6 support, flexible selectors and smart assertions, authentication features, etc.

You can learn more about the open-source version at https://devexpress.github.io/testcafe.

We have not abandoned our aspirations to create a competitive proprietary product. We plan to release a new commercial version called TestCafe Studio, based on the revised open-source TestCafe. Follow us on Twitter for the news about TestCafe Studio.

Which browsers does TestCafe support? What are the exact supported versions?

You can find a list of supported browsers in our documentation. TestCafe is tested against the two latest versions of each browser except for the browsers whose versions are specified explicitly in this list.

We do not use the most recent JavaScript features in TestCafe code, which means it should work with any browser with HTML5 support released in the last three years.

Can I use third-party modules in tests?

You can import third-party modules to test files in the same way as a regular node.js module.

On the server side, use the import statement.

import fs from 'fs';

fixture `fixture`

test('test', async t => {
   var filePath = 'filepath.js';

   await t.expect(fs.existsSync(filePath)).ok();

On the client side, use t.eval to include the desired module in the test. Then you can use this module inside client functions and selectors.

test('test', async t => {
    // eval jquery code to add jQuery to the page
    await t.eval(new Function(fs.readFileSync('./jquery.js').toString()));

    var clientFunction = ClientFunction(() => {
        // You can use $ here
        return $('div').text();

    var text = await clientFunction();

How do I work with configuration files and environment variables?

TestCafe works without any configuration. It does not have any config files where you can place custom variables. However, you can introduce your own configuration file and import it to the test code.

For example, you need to pass a website's base URL to test code. In this instance, you can create the following config.json file:

    "baseUrl": "http://localhost/testcafe"

In the test code, import it as you would do with a regular JavaScript module.

import config from './config';

fixture `Fixture`
    .page `${config.baseUrl}/test1/index.html`;

Alternatively, you can use custom command line parameters or environment variables.

The following command passes the env argument to the test code:

testcafe chrome test.js --env=development

In the test, use an argument parser library (like minimist) to parse custom arguments.

import minimist from 'minimist';

const args = minimist(process.argv.slice(2));
const environment = args.env;


test('check environment', async t => {
  console.log('Environment:', environment);

To set an environment variable use the following command on Windows.

set DEV_MODE=true
testcafe chrome test.js

On macOS, the workflow is longer.

In test code, you can access this variable as process.env.DEV_MODE.


I have installed TestCafe but I cannot run it. What should I do?

Check your firewall. First, make sure that your firewall does not block the ports TestCafe uses. TestCafe chooses free ports automatically by default. Use the --ports command line option or the createTestCafe API factory function to specify custom ports. After that, check that the firewall does not block these specific ports.

Check your proxy server. Another reason for this problem can be the proxy server you use to access the Internet. If your network is connected to the Web via a proxy, use the --proxy command line option or the useProxy API method to specify the proxy address.

For Linux check X11. Also note that if you run TestCafe on Linux, you need to make sure the system is running the X11 server. Without X11, you can only run tests in cloud services and headless Google Chrome. However, if you use the Xvbf server, you can run any other browser in the headless mode.

When I run a TestCafe test, I get an unexpected error. What can cause that?

JavaScript errors. The most common reason for this is a JavaScript error on the tested page. Load this page in the browser, open the console and see if the page has any errors. In case there are errors, you can either fix them or use the --skip-js-errors flag to tell TestCafe to skip them.

Browser extensions. If this does not help, try running the problematic test in incognito mode. You can do this by adding an appropriate flag after the browser name.

testcafe "chrome -incognito" tests/test.js
testcafe "firefox –private-window" tests/test.js

If the test runs successfully, it might be browser extensions causing the issue. Try disabling them one by one and restart the test in the regular mode at each iteration. This way you can find out which extension prevents the test from running.

Third-party modules. In rare cases, third-party modules can be the cause. If you use a locally installed TestCafe, try installing it globally and running the test outside of the project to eliminate the influence of third-party modules.

I have installed TestCafe plugins but they do not work. What have I done wrong?

Plugins should also be installed locally if you are using a locally installed TestCafe.

npm install --save-dev {pluginName}

If you are going to use a global TestCafe installation, or you wish to use the plugin in other projects as well, install it globally.

npm install -g {pluginName}

My test fails because TestCafe could not find the required webpage element. Why does this happen?

First, try debugging the tested page with the TestCafe's built-in debugger by adding the t.debug() method to test code. Then run the test and wait until the browser stops at the breakpoint. After this, use the browser's development tools to check that:

  • the element is present on the page;
  • the element is visible (TestCafe considers it visible if it does not have display set to none, visibility set to hidden or the zero width or height);
  • the element's part targeted by the action is visible (the center of the element by default; it can be changed using the offsetX and offsetY parameters);
  • the element is not in an <iframe> (if it is, use the t.switchToIframe method to switch to the appropriate <iframe>).

Also, try running the test at full screen. Use the t.maximizeWindow and t.resizeWindow actions to control the browser window size. If the test passes, it means your webpage hides the target element when the window is resized to smaller dimensions.

Finally, try updating TestCafe to the latest version to see if the problem persists.